Nursing Bottle Caries/Early Childhood Caries

The prevalence of ECC in preschool children was more than 27.5%. While EEC was at 70% among children from Anganwadis mostly belongto the rural and urban slum areas with a marked lower level of socioeconomic status, poor-feeding conditions and dietary patterns, lower levels of education and health awareness among the parents, limited utilization of healthcare facilities. Unfortunately, very few studies have been conducted on ECC among this population.

Misaligned jaws and teeth

Around 30% of children in India have misaligned jaws and teeth affecting proper functioning of the dento-facial apparatus. In fact, malocclusion is the second commonest dental disorder in children and young adults, next to dental caries. There are only a few studies available on the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs in India. However, a large number of malocclusions are preventable.

Dental caries

The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare estimates that currently, about 85% to 90% of adults have dental cavities, along with about 60 to 80% of its school-going children are affected by dental caries (cavities) or tooth decay. And, periodontal disease — infections of the tissue around the teeth — has ended up affecting at least 85% of the population. Dental caries is one of the major causes of pain, discomfort and absenteeism from school and sometimes office work too. If left untreated this dental caries may lead to involvement of the deepest part of tooth i.e. pulp, resulting in severe pain and dental abscess. Dental caries commonly occurs on chewing surface or the inter-dental surfaces in posterior teeth.

Gum Diseases

The earliest sign of gum inflammation is bleeding from margins of gum during brushing without any pain. If proper brushing is not done during this time, the diseases may progress. Sometimes the gum may recede exposing the tooth root. This condition is called as gum recession. If not treated, the disease may progress to involve surrounding bone leading to pocket formation around tooth, called as periodontitis or pyorrhoea.

The Impact of Tobacco and Oral Cancers

India is considered the world capital for oral cancer. India has the highest number of oral cancers in the world with 75,000 to 80,000 new cases reported every year. Every year, about one million people die from tobacco use in India, and around 34.6% of adults consume tobacco, with 52% exposed to second-hand smoke. Furthermore, tobacco cessation, as opposed to prevention, could save many lives potentially lost to tobacco use in India.